Zinn, Howard, Terrorism and War, Seven Stories Press, 2002.

page 22 “In war the evil of the means is certain and the achievement of the end, however important, is always uncertain. That is, war always sets off a chain of events that are unpredictable. For instance, in World War II, you could not be certain that you would defeat fascism. You might be fairly certain that you would defeat Hitler and Mussolini; but you could not be certain that you would be doing away with all the elements of fascism, with militarism, racism, imperialism, and violence. In fact, after 50 million deaths, that did not happen. Considering those issues, and thinking about the prospects for the human race given the horrific technology of war, persuaded me that there could no longer really be a war that we could call just. I decided that whatever problems we faced, whatever tyranny we faced, whatever world situation we faced, whatever act of aggression we faced, we had to come up with a solution other than the mass killing of human beings.”

OBSERVATION: In order to make any reasonable assessment of information it is necessary to be literate. Literacy means several things, and especially requires the ability to read and comprehend facts, data, ideas, etc. While the internet, mass media, publicity and marketing drive a large percentage of available data, it is important to read beyond these content delivery systems. Books, whether in the form of ebooks, or print, and the ability to select, and discern value in content is paramount to any developed understanding of complex issues. Teachers, and the value they provide the world, access to genuine data, the ability to understand, cross-reference, and make conclusions about issues and ideas provides positive action. The statistics regarding illiteracy in the world, and the resultant damage caused by illiteracy are both issues underlying many of the social ills facing the human population. It is necessary for all of us to take the time to learn, to apply Kohlberg, and his ideas about behavior above simple self interest in order to make the world a healthier place to live.

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